To resolve the problem of dukkha*, we first must understand the teaching of cause and effect.
Throughout the universe, nothing changes haphazardly. Everything follows a common rule. That rule is cause and effect, often mistakenly referred to as karma. However, the word karma simply means action, physical, verbal, or mental.
It is intention that forms our karma, our action.
The result of karma is referred to as vipaka.
Karma is the action and vipaka is the result, the fruit.
Buddhism teaches every action will cause an effect. And everything effect we experience now was caused by an earlier action.
The correlation between cause and effect is a universal law, not random happenstance.
The law of cause and effect requires neither giver, nor creator, but 'directs" quietly and impartially.
If we wish to resolve the problem of dukkha and realize liberation, we must understand cause and effect.
Stress, anxiety, discomfort, dissatisfaction, dis-ease, worry, unpleasantness, sorrow, distress, and suffering.